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I’m not quite sure when was the first time that I saw that picture, but I’m sure that I saw it while I was getting my bachelor’s. About 12 years ago, I used to spend a lot of time in the library, I remember that there were some signs about how to use the institutional network to get access to scientific literature. It was the first time that even heard about some of the publishers so naturally started to look what was all the fuss. …

Among the different kinds of data, geographical data is one of the most versatile kinds out there. It can encode the size and location of a geographical region, as well as another data value. From the number of votes, population, elevation, and many others, the use of geographical data to display relevant information is widely used. With the earliest example found in 1862 by Baron Pierre Charles Dupin, choropleth maps are used to summarize information found in specific geographical regions.

The Data

A common format of geographical data is the GeoJSON format, which contains the latitude and longitude coordinates of a specific…

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While cutting a piece of wood, with any kind of tool the consequence that marks and end the action will be having two pieces of wood. If for whatever reason you’re unable to have two pieces of wood either the available tool is not suitable for the task, or there’s something wrong with how you’re trying to cut it.

If using a circular saw or a hand saw it could mean that the saw needs some sharpening or a change of blade. If that it’s not the case perhaps there’s something inside the wood that cant be cut with the…

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What is PCR?

With the SARS Cov-2 pandemic, a quick rise in awareness of the existence of PCR was brought to light. Specifically one of the many forms of PCR, real-time PCR or qPCR is the best way to test for Covid-19 infection. PCR stands for “polymerase chain reaction” and was developed by Kary Mullis while its real-time counterpart by Russell Higuchi.

The PCR technique aims to make copies or amplify a fragment of a DNA sequence. The first step is to denature the sample DNA is to make it linear. Linear DNA allows for the annealing of two templates known as primers…

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While hiking, walking in the park, or any given place, often there’s something that catches our attention. Even for a short amount of time, simply we’re unable to recognize what it is, or it feels odd. Some time we stared for a while trying to recognize what we saw, and other times just move on with our activities.

Quick recognition or detection of useful information is an important skill learned since the start of human civilization. Recognizing tracks of an animal while hunting or the places frequented by wild animals enabled early humans to prepare traps for wild animals. …

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Data is the first step in any data science application, some times data can be easily accessed as a single file. And other times data is in a database and just a simple call is enough to get it. However, sometimes data is accessible but scattered into several pieces and the analysis is just limited to small parts of a data set. In some cases, data can be downloaded as a TXT file from a web page, but each web page is just a small part of a complete data set. …

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When human settlements started to appear and glimpses of society emerged tiny bits of knowledge were created by accident using a simple method. A member of the tribe eat or touched something that caused some illness and eventually die, then it was concluded that the thing is something really bad. That started the need to know if something is edible or not and how to differentiate both scenarios.

With the growth of knowledge about potentially lethal things different traits were found to be useful, bright colors in animals, bad smell, irritation when grabbing it, and many others. And using observation…

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The development and continuous improvement of the microscope lead to many important discoveries. One of them was made by Robert Brown a botanist that described the movement of pollen particles immersed in water. Concerned that the movement could be life-related he repeated the experiment with inorganic matter and a movement pattern with the same characteristics was observed.

One of the ways Brownian motion can be described mathematically is as a stochastic process. Brownian motion can be easily modeled and extended to higher dimensions, as each dimension contains a one-dimensional Brownian motion component.

As Brownian motion involves the motion of…

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Academia is ofter associated with scientific, technological, and human advancement. And it’s true to a certain degree. However, by leaving behind some of the strange things that can occur in an academic environment we lose track of some things that I believe we’re the first glimpses of such things could happen.


There have been many different attempts to try to manage trolls in chat forums and comment sections of all social platforms over the internet. Some of the reasons why someone will troll are revenge, attention-seeking boredom, or personal amusement, according to Dr. …

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It feels like an accepted fact in academic circles that the complexity of biological systems is far beyond mathematical approaches. Even with models such as Lotka-Volterra and the SIR model, many researchers are hesitant to believe that everything eventually reduces to math. Nonetheless, when mathematical models try to improve the predictions often the specificity of the model makes it almost impossible to use it in a wet lab application.

To create a new mathematical model the main steps in the process can be described as follows, make observations of a phenomenon, find the relationship between variables, look for similarities in…

Octavio Gonzalez-Lugo

Writing about math, natural sciences and academia.

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