Neslihan Gunaydin on Unsplash

Making compost is a simple process that farmers and hobbyists alike try at least once in their lifetime. The starting materials could be food waste, leaves and small branches of a tree, or any other organic waste available. Then after some time, the organic material is decomposed by the environment creating a compound rich in carbon, nitrogen, and microorganisms that work perfectly as a fertilizer for most plants.

Although it seems simple and straightforward, there is a great deal of complexity in the process. That range of variable compositions as well as environmental variables makes the composting process very complicated…


One of the most common questions about machine learning is how does the algorithm makes decisions? In the case of deep learning, that is a hot topic of research, however, for some classical methods, a deterministic view on how the algorithm takes a decision can be shown. For example, let’s define a simple binary classification problem with the wine quality data set.

The labels of the data set are set to a hard boundary at a score of five and then the data is scaled and the two principal components of the data sets are used as input data…


Random numbers can be used for a series of applications ranging from cryptography to Montecarlo simulation. In this post, we are going to use random numbers as a means to generate random procedural or generative art with blender. As inside blender NumPy can be used its pseudo-random number generators will be used.

There are two ways to generate pseudo-random numbers with NumPy, the first one is to simply use the np.random.random method. With that approach, the random numbers are generated using the Mersenne Twister method. One of the most widely used methods to generate pseudo-random numbers. …


A fractal is a term first introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot to define a subset of a euclidean space where the Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimension or fractal dimension exceeds the topological dimension. Fractals are infinitely self-similar and most of them are nowhere differentiable. Aside from the technical definition of a fractal, a key hallmark of them is its self-similarity. The Mandelbrot set is one of the most known fractal sets, defined by Adrien Douady and named in tribute to the mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot. The following describes a python script to define and render a 2D representation of a fractal set.

To make the…


Ant Rozetsky unsplash

Imagine the following scenario for one second, an entrepreneur and some investors are taking, the entrepreneur is looking to get some money to fund a little project and the investor wants to know if the project is profitable.

The entrepreneur arrives at a hall and starts to talks about a new kind of methodology that will revolutionize engineering, medicine, and more. People will use that technology to build new ones for centuries, from automatons to outer space travels, the universe is the limit. …


Photo by Vincent Ghilione on Unsplash

Reported first in Wuhan capital of the Hubei province in China as a novel respiratory disease, the coronavirus disease of 2019 or COVID-19 pandemic has taken over the world since the end of 2019. With symptoms similar to the common cold, the detection of the COVID-19 is somewhat elusive and can be fatal if it’s not detected at an early stage or proper medical care is not available. The pathogen responsible for COVID-19 was detected and sequenced after a short time and named SARS Cov-2.

About a year has passed since the first SARS Cov-2 sequence was made publicly available…


Photo by Sebastian Unrau on Unsplash

An ancient form to harvest water is by making a body of water or pond. Once the pond is dug, and the pond surface is saturated with water the water level starts to rise. And after some time a huge amount of water can be saved. Nonetheless, a common pitfall of the system is the loss due to absorption through the ground and evaporation. However, modern approaches use geomembranes or some other waterproofing techniques to prevent absorption loss. …


Simulation of natural phenomena, geometrical properties of different shapes, and travel schedule optimization are some applications of advanced mathematics. Nonetheless, art generation is far from being perceived as a possible application for mathematics. Due to its pattern generation capabilities, math can offer a series of tools to create several pieces of generative art. The following describes how to create geometrical patterns with trigonometric functions in blender.

Generative art

Generative art refers to artwork created by the use of an autonomous system. Generally, the autonomous system is non-human and can independently determine the features in the artwork that otherwise require the decisions made…


Photo by Jamie Street on Unsplash

To gain insights about social phenomena, the launch of an app, a marketing campaign, and many other events data related to the event is collected. The resulting dataset describes the behavior of the phenomena being analyzed. Although some features and analytics on the data set can describe key elements, the combination of features or some other unknown aspects about the phenomena can be deeply embedded in the data. Hence exploration of the data is needed to gain a better understanding and to propose new features to be measured. …


Photo by Sebastian Pena Lambarri on Unsplash

Sustainable farming relies on the implementation of different practices that have no to little impact on the environment. Harvesting rainwater for irrigation, composting crops wastes, and its use for fertilization are some of the practices that can be found in a sustainable farm. An advanced sustainable technique often unused is the aquaponics technique, where suitable fish are grown on a tank and the water used for the fish to grow is then used as fertilizer in a hydroponic system. With a highly water-dependent system, its management results in a key aspect to evaluate and control. …

Octavio Gonzalez-Lugo

Writing about math, natural sciences and academia.

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